A rock-carved relief of Mithridates I of Parthia(r. c. 171–138 BC), seenriding on horseback, at Xong-e Ashdar,city of Izeh, Khuzestan Province, Iran
Under Mithridates I (171-138 BC), the Parthians continued their conquests and annexed Media,Fars, Babylonia and Assyria, creating an empire that extended from the Euphrates to Heart in Afghanistan, a restoration of the ancient Achaemenian empire of Cyrus the Great.
In addition to the nomads that were a constant menace on the eastern frontier and the state of Kushan, a Buddhist kingdom in India, the Parthians had also to face another powerful adversary Rome. For almost three centuries, Rome and Parthia were to battle over Syria, Mesopotamia and Armenia, without ever achieving any lasting results. In 53 BC, during the reign of Orodes II (56-37 BC), a reign which marked the highpoint of Parthian power, the Roman army was severely beaten at Carrhae. But despite this victory and the signing of several treaties, the wars recurred throughout the first and second centuries AD. However, the fall of the Parthian dynasty was provoked not by an external enemy but by an internal rebellion.
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